‘Monstrous’ new Russian saber-tooth fossils clarify early evolution of mammal lineage
Fossils representing two new species of saber-toothed prehistoric predators have been described by researchers from the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences ( Raleigh, USA ) and the Vyatka Paleontological Museum ( Kirov, Russia ). These new species improve the scientists‘ understanding of an important interval in the early evolution of mammals — a time, between mass extinctions, when the roles of certain carnivores changed drastically.
Living mammals are descended from a group of animals called therapsids, a diverse assemblage of “protomammals” that dominated terrestrial ecosystems in the Permian Period ( ~299-252 million years ago ), millions of years before the earliest dinosaurs. These protomammals included tusked herbivores, burrowing insectivores, and saber-toothed predators. The vast majority of Permian therapsids have been found in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, and as a result, the South African record has played an outsized role influencing scientists’ understanding of protomammal evolution. Because of this, therapsid fossils from outside of South Africa are extremely important, allowing scientists to discern whether observed events in the protomammal fossil record represent global or merely regional patterns.
Recent expeditions by the Vyatka Paleontological Museum have collected a wealth of spectacularly-preserved Permian fossils near the town of Kotelnich along the Vyatka River in European Russia. These fossil discoveries include the remains of two previously unknown species of predatory protomammals, newly described in the journal PeerJ by Christian Kammerer of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and Vladimir Masyutin of the Vyatka Paleontological Museum. The first of the two new species, Gorynychus masyutinae, was a wolf-sized carnivore representing the largest predator in the Kotelnich fauna. The second new species, Nochnitsa geminidens, was a smaller, long-snouted carnivore with needle-like teeth. Gorynychus belongs to a subgroup of protomammals called therocephalians (“beast heads”), whereas Nochnitsa belongs to a different subgroup called gorgonopsians (“gorgon faces”).
Both new species are named after legendary monsters from Russian folklore, befitting their menacing appearances. Gorynychus is named after Zmey Gorynych, a three-headed dragon, and Nochnitsa is named after a malevolent nocturnal spirit. (Based on their relatively large eye sockets, it is likely that Nochnitsa and its relatives were nocturnal.)
Gorynychus and Nochnitsa improve scientists’ understanding of ecosystem reorganization after the mid-Permian extinction ( 260 mya ). Although not as well-known as the more devastating end-Permian mass extinction ( 252 mya, which nearly wiped out protomammals ), the mid-Permian mass extinction also played a major role in shaping the course of protomammal evolution. In typical late Permian ecosystems, the top predators were giant ( tiger-sized ), saber-toothed gorgonopsians and therocephalians were generally small insectivores. In mid-Permian ecosystems, by contrast, these roles are reversed. At Kotelnich, the saber-toothed top predator Gorynychus is a therocephalian and the only gorgonopsians are much smaller animals.
“In between these extinctions, there was a complete flip-flop in what roles these carnivores were playing in their ecosystems — as if bears suddenly became weasel-sized and weasels became bear-sized in their place,” says Kammerer. The new species from Russia provide the first evidence that there was a worldwide turnover in predators after the mid-Permian extinction, and not just a localized turnover in South Africa.
Kammerer adds, “Kotelnich is one of the most important localities worldwide for finding therapsid fossils — not only because they are amazingly complete and well-preserved there, but also because they provide an all-too-rare window into mammal ancestry in the Northern Hemisphere during the Permian.”
Edited by Ariasun editorial board
for ariasun products online shopping ,click here.
website ariasuniweb net ariasuniportal ariasuni Health Journal Family physician Medical Health Ariasan Elcomp </ em> Elcomp Exhibition </ em> Online Elcomp Therapy Health Electronics Tourism Aryans City Net Soocom Ariasun Soopak Ariasun medipharma Advertisement Reader The requirements Employment Currency Exchange Currency Coin Gold < em> car property land building stock exchange bank Government People Leader Assembly Quran Book Student University Knowledge base Exercise Sima Sound Religion < / em> Life People Hope Work Dread Unemployment youth exercise information technology computer < / em> Hardware Software Computer Server Virtual Tablet < / em> Mobile Zanjan Tehran Iran Germany Greece Georgia Georgia Dubai World Air Space < em> Country Product Finder AriaSun International Group Online Store WikiPharma AriaSun Production Industrial Operations Equip Installation & Investment Air Space International Trading Research Industrial Business Medical Dummy Undoubtedly Health Drug Therapy Health Information Technology & Computer Airlines Tourism Logo Design Sticker Design Advertising Campaign Science & Research News </em > Political News Economic Trade International Stock Market News Medical Tourism & Cultural Heritage Aeronautics & Tourism Sport & Olympic Domain and University The Quran Arts & Culture Industry & Technology Accidents Ladies Currency and Gold Coins Flats Rip’s Web Site Kandasheh Ahwaz Web Site Foot Website Abuse Clean Sean Cinere Live Nature Whats Punababy Mussels Clinic Radarians Man AriaSun Preddies Reservations < Em> Tourists Unemployment youth exercise CityNet PakSaman SooComAriaSun SooPakAriaSun MediPharma AriaSun Kalayab AriaSunBazar AriaSunBazar Medeca MediKala Artists Group AriaSunGroup Web site designing RP Pilgrimage website Historical tours website Web Resident Resorts site Tours website The Pana The Natural Tours Website Kandesheh Ahwaz The Scientific Tour Website Oil & Refineries The Sports Tour Website Gas The Web Tours Water Exposure Tour Site Travel Tour Website Travel Tours The Last-minute Tours Site Tours of the last minute Web-site of the local tours Recreation site Internal tours site Pilgrimage Fun Places Design Web Design City Net Designing a Holiday Resort Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Website designing pilgrimage City Net Pilgrimage Travel </em > Designing Travel Planner Website Designing Travel Places Historic Places Designing Historic Places Historic Places Design Residences Residential Residential Design Residential Residential Design Cultural Places Designing a Web Site for Cultural Places Designing Cultural Places Natural Places Natural Places Designing a natural site Designing a natural website scientific Designing for scientific Designing for scientific sports sports designing sports < Em> Sports Facilities Design Sports Facilities Sport Sport Designing a Sports Center for Extreme Sports Creating places Designing for Exhibition Exhibit places Designing Exhibit Places Designing Exposure Website Web Recreation Recreation Web Design Recreational tours The design of the tourist resorts Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Tours Historic Tours Tour Design Historic Tours Web Tour Design Historical Tours Residential Tours Resorts Tour Design Residential Tour Website Design Cultural Design Cultural Tour Site Cultural Tour Website Natural Designing Natural Tours Designing Natural Tours Web Site Science Designing Scientific Tours Designing Sci-Fi Web Site Designing a Sports Tour Designing a Sports Tour Website Designing a Tours Tour Designing a Touring Web Site Exhibit Exhibit Tour Travel Designing Tours Tour The Last Moment Toure The Last Moment Designing the Last Minute Tours Internal Tours Designing Local Tours Designing a Web Site Tour </em > Foreign Tours Designing a Tours Site Designing a Website for Tours Coastal Work < em> Designing the Coast Guided Tour Urban Designing Urban Tours Urban Touring Sights < Em> Sightseeing Design Sightseeing Web Site Mountaineering Sailing Designing Sailing Tours < Em> Website Designing Sailing Tours Aviation Designing Tours Cruising Cruising ships Creating cruise ship cruises Creating Cruise Cruises Inbound Flights Designing Inbound Flights Foreign Flights Designing a Foreign Airmail Web site Last Minute Flights Web Design Last Minute Deals cheap Website Design Cheap Flights Online Shopping Online Sales Online Selling Website Design Online Shopping Online Store Online Store Design Online Tickets Design an Online Ticket Internet Designing a Web Store Internet Tickets Designing an Internet Ticket > parscoders
Finance & Administration
Soopak Ariasun ( IT )
Sookam Ariasun ( Medical and Veterinary )
Aerospace ( Pad Ariasun )
Manufacture and production ( Rad Ariasun )
Airline and Tourism ( Man Ariasun )
International Commerce ( Mad Ariasun )
Research Center Ariasun ( R&D&C )
Cultural,Satellite and Digital
AriaSun International Group