Rocky or gassy? Massive, dense super-Earth planet detected
An artist’s impression of a stellar system with three super-Earths.
A star about 100 light years away in the Pisces constellation, GJ 9827, hosts what may be one of the most massive and dense super-Earth planets detected to date, according to new research led by Carnegie’s Johanna Teske. This new information provides evidence to help astronomers better understand the process by which such planets form.
The GJ 9827 star actually hosts a trio of planets, discovered by NASA’s exoplanet-hunting Kepler/K2 mission, and all three are slightly larger than Earth. This is the size that the Kepler mission determined to be most common in the galaxy with periods between a few and several-hundred-days.
Intriguingly, no planets of this size exist in our Solar System. This makes scientists curious about the conditions under which they form and evolve.
One important key to understanding a planet’s history is to determine its composition. Are these super-Earths rocky like our own planet? Or do they have solid cores surrounded by large, gassy atmospheres?
To try to understand what an exoplanet is made of, scientists need to measure both its mass and its radius, which allows them to determine its bulk density.
When quantifying planets in this way, astronomers have noticed a trend. It turns out that planets with radii greater than about 1.7 times that of Earth are have a gassy envelope, like Neptune, and those with radii smaller than this are rocky, like our home planet.
Some researchers have proposed that this difference is caused by photoevaporation, which strips planets of their surrounding envelope of so-called volatiles — substances like water and carbon dioxide that have low boiling points — creating smaller-radius planets. But more information is needed to truly test this theory.
This is why GJ 9827’s three planets are special — with radii of 1.64 (planet b), 1.29 (planet c) and 2.08 (planet d), they span this dividing line between super-Earth (rocky) and sub-Neptune (somewhat gassy) planets.
Luckily, teams of Carnegie scientists including co-authors Steve Shectman, Sharon Wang, Paul Butler, Jeff Crane, and Ian Thompson, have been monitoring GJ 9827 with their Planet Finding Spectrograph (PFS), so they were able to constrain the masses of the three planets with data in hand, rather than having to scramble to get many new observations of GJ 9827.
“Usually, if a transiting planet is detected, it takes months if not a year or more to gather enough observations to measure its mass,” Teske explained. “Because GJ 9827 is a bright star, we happened to have it in the catalog of stars that Carnegie astronomers been monitoring for planets since 2010. This was unique to PFS.”
The spectrograph was developed by Carnegie scientists and mounted on the Magellan Clay Telescopes at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory.
The PFS observations indicate that planet b is roughly eight times the mass of Earth, which would make it one of the most-massive and dense super-Earths yet discovered. The masses for planet c and planet d are estimated to be about two and a half and four times that of Earth respectively, although the uncertainty in these two determinations is very high.
This information suggests that planet d has a significant volatile envelope, and leaves open the question of whether planet c has a volatile envelope or not. But the better constraint on the mass of planet b suggests that that it is roughly 50 percent iron.
“More observations are needed to pin down the compositions of these three planets,” Wang said. “But they do seem like some of the best candidates to test our ideas about how super-Earths form and evolve, potentially using NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.”
Angie Wolfgang, an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow from Penn State University, is also a co-author on the paper.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.
This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research has also made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program.
Edited by Ariasun editorial board
for ariasun products online shopping ,click here.
website ariasuniweb net ariasuniportal ariasuni Health Journal Family physician Medical Health Ariasan Elcomp </ em> Elcomp Exhibition </ em> Online Elcomp Therapy Health Electronics Tourism Aryans City Net Soocom Ariasun Soopak Ariasun medipharma Advertisement Reader The requirements Employment Currency Exchange Currency Coin Gold < em> car property land building stock exchange bank Government People Leader Assembly Quran Book Student University Knowledge base Exercise Sima Sound Religion < / em> Life People Hope Work Dread Unemployment youth exercise information technology computer < / em> Hardware Software Computer Server Virtual Tablet < / em> Mobile Zanjan Tehran Iran Germany Greece Georgia Georgia Dubai World Air Space < em> Country Product Finder AriaSun International Group Online Store WikiPharma AriaSun Production Industrial Operations Equip Installation & Investment Air Space International Trading Research Industrial Business Medical Dummy Undoubtedly Health Drug Therapy Health Information Technology & Computer Airlines Tourism Logo Design Sticker Design Advertising Campaign Science & Research News </em > Political News Economic Trade International Stock Market News Medical Tourism & Cultural Heritage Aeronautics & Tourism Sport & Olympic Domain and University The Quran Arts & Culture Industry & Technology Accidents Ladies Currency and Gold Coins Flats Rip’s Web Site Kandasheh Ahwaz Web Site Foot Website Abuse Clean Sean Cinere Live Nature Whats Punababy Mussels Clinic Radarians Man AriaSun Preddies Reservations < Em> Tourists Unemployment youth exercise CityNet PakSaman SooComAriaSun SooPakAriaSun MediPharma AriaSun Kalayab AriaSunBazar AriaSunBazar Medeca MediKala Artists Group AriaSunGroup Web site designing RP Pilgrimage website Historical tours website Web Resident Resorts site Tours website The Pana The Natural Tours Website Kandesheh Ahwaz The Scientific Tour Website Oil & Refineries The Sports Tour Website Gas The Web Tours Water Exposure Tour Site Travel Tour Website Travel Tours The Last-minute Tours Site Tours of the last minute Web-site of the local tours Recreation site Internal tours site Pilgrimage Fun Places Design Web Design City Net Designing a Holiday Resort Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Website designing pilgrimage City Net Pilgrimage Travel </em > Designing Travel Planner Website Designing Travel Places Historic Places Designing Historic Places Historic Places Design Residences Residential Residential Design Residential Residential Design Cultural Places Designing a Web Site for Cultural Places Designing Cultural Places Natural Places Natural Places Designing a natural site Designing a natural website scientific Designing for scientific Designing for scientific sports sports designing sports < Em> Sports Facilities Design Sports Facilities Sport Sport Designing a Sports Center for Extreme Sports Creating places Designing for Exhibition Exhibit places Designing Exhibit Places Designing Exposure Website Web Recreation Recreation Web Design Recreational tours The design of the tourist resorts Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Tours Historic Tours Tour Design Historic Tours Web Tour Design Historical Tours Residential Tours Resorts Tour Design Residential Tour Website Design Cultural Design Cultural Tour Site Cultural Tour Website Natural Designing Natural Tours Designing Natural Tours Web Site Science Designing Scientific Tours Designing Sci-Fi Web Site Designing a Sports Tour Designing a Sports Tour Website Designing a Tours Tour Designing a Touring Web Site Exhibit Exhibit Tour Travel Designing Tours Tour The Last Moment Toure The Last Moment Designing the Last Minute Tours Internal Tours Designing Local Tours Designing a Web Site Tour </em > Foreign Tours Designing a Tours Site Designing a Website for Tours Coastal Work < em> Designing the Coast Guided Tour Urban Designing Urban Tours Urban Touring Sights < Em> Sightseeing Design Sightseeing Web Site Mountaineering Sailing Designing Sailing Tours < Em> Website Designing Sailing Tours Aviation Designing Tours Cruising Cruising ships Creating cruise ship cruises Creating Cruise Cruises Inbound Flights Designing Inbound Flights Foreign Flights Designing a Foreign Airmail Web site Last Minute Flights Web Design Last Minute Deals cheap Website Design Cheap Flights Online Shopping Online Sales Online Selling Website Design Online Shopping Online Store Online Store Design Online Tickets Design an Online Ticket Internet Designing a Web Store Internet Tickets Designing an Internet Ticket > parscoders
Finance & Administration
Soopak Ariasun ( IT )
Sookam Ariasun ( Medical and Veterinary )
Aerospace ( Pad Ariasun )
Manufacture and production ( Rad Ariasun )
Airline and Tourism ( Man Ariasun )
International Commerce ( Mad Ariasun )
Research Center Ariasun ( R&D&C )
Cultural,Satellite and Digital
AriaSun International Group