The moon once had an atmosphere
Artistic impression of the Moon, looking over the Imbrium Basin, with lavas erupting, venting gases, and producing a visible atmosphere.
A new study shows that an atmosphere was produced around the ancient Moon, 3 to 4 billion years ago, when intense volcanic eruptions spewed gases above the surface faster than they could escape to space. The study was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
When one looks up at the Moon, dark surfaces of volcanic basalt can be easily seen to fill large impact basins. Those seas of basalt, known as maria, erupted while the interior of the Moon was still hot and generating magmatic plumes that sometimes breached the lunar surface and flowed for hundreds of kilometers. Analyses of Apollo samples indicate those magmas carried gas components, such as carbon monoxide, the ingredients for water, sulfur, and other volatile species.
In new work, Dr. Debra H. Needham, Research Scientist of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Dr. David A. Kring, Senior Staff Scientist, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, calculated the amounts of gases that rose from the erupting lavas as they flowed over the surface and showed that those gases accumulated around the Moon to form a transient atmosphere. The atmosphere was thickest during the peak in volcanic activity about 3.5 billion years ago and, when created, would have persisted for about 70 million years before being lost to space.
The two largest pulses of gases were produced when lava seas filled the Serenitatis and Imbrium basins about 3.8 and 3.5 billion years ago, respectively. The margins of those lava seas were explored by astronauts of the Apollo 15 and 17 missions, who collected samples that not only provided the ages of the eruptions, but also contained evidence of the gases produced from the erupting lunar lavas.
This new picture of the Moon has important implications for future exploration. The analysis of Needham and Kring quantifies a source of volatiles that may have been trapped from the atmosphere into cold, permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles and, thus, may provide a source of ice suitable for a sustained lunar exploration program. Volatiles trapped in icy deposits could provide air and fuel for astronauts conducting lunar surface operations and, potentially, for missions beyond the Moon.
The new research was initiated from the LPI-Johnson Space Center’s Center for Lunar Science and Exploration, led by Kring and supported by NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute. Needham is a former postdoctoral researcher at the LPI.
Edited by Ariasun editorial board
for ariasun products online shopping ,click here.
Health Journal Family physician Medical Health Ariasan Elcomp </ em> Elcomp Exhibition </ em> Online Elcomp Therapy Health Electronics Tourism Aryans City Net Soocom Ariasun Soopak Ariasun medipharma Advertisement Reader The requirements Employment Currency Exchange Currency Coin Gold < em> car property land building stock exchange bank Government People Leader Assembly Quran Book Student University Knowledge base Exercise Sima Sound Religion < / em> Life People Hope Work Dread Unemployment youth exercise information technology computer < / em> Hardware Software Computer Server Virtual Tablet < / em> Mobile Zanjan Tehran Iran Germany Greece Georgia Georgia Dubai World Air Space < em> Country Product Finder AriaSun International Group Online Store WikiPharma AriaSun Production Industrial Operations Equip Installation & Investment Air Space International Trading Research Industrial Business Medical Dummy Undoubtedly Health Drug Therapy Health Information Technology & Computer Airlines Tourism Logo Design Sticker Design Advertising Campaign Science & Research News </em > Political News Economic Trade International Stock Market News Medical Tourism & Cultural Heritage Aeronautics & Tourism Sport & Olympic Domain and University The Quran Arts & Culture Industry & Technology Accidents Ladies Currency and Gold Coins Flats Rip’s Web Site Kandasheh Ahwaz Web Site Foot Website Abuse Clean Sean Cinere Live Nature Whats Punababy Mussels Clinic Radarians Man AriaSun Preddies Reservations < Em> Tourists Unemployment youth exercise CityNet PakSaman SooComAriaSun SooPakAriaSun MediPharma AriaSun Kalayab AriaSunBazar AriaSunBazar Medeca MediKala Artists Group AriaSunGroup Web site designing RP Pilgrimage website Historical tours website Web Resident Resorts site Tours website The Pana The Natural Tours Website Kandesheh Ahwaz The Scientific Tour Website Oil & Refineries The Sports Tour Website Gas The Web Tours Water Exposure Tour Site Travel Tour Website Travel Tours The Last-minute Tours Site Tours of the last minute Web-site of the local tours Recreation site Internal tours site Pilgrimage Fun Places Design Web Design City Net Designing a Holiday Resort Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Website designing pilgrimage City Net Pilgrimage Travel </em > Designing Travel Planner Website Designing Travel Places Historic Places Designing Historic Places Historic Places Design Residences Residential Residential Design Residential Residential Design Cultural Places Designing a Web Site for Cultural Places Designing Cultural Places Natural Places Natural Places Designing a natural site Designing a natural website scientific Designing for scientific Designing for scientific sports sports designing sports < Em> Sports Facilities Design Sports Facilities Sport Sport Designing a Sports Center for Extreme Sports Creating places Designing for Exhibition Exhibit places Designing Exhibit Places Designing Exposure Website Web Recreation Recreation Web Design Recreational tours The design of the tourist resorts Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Tours Historic Tours Tour Design Historic Tours Web Tour Design Historical Tours Residential Tours Resorts Tour Design Residential Tour Website Design Cultural Design Cultural Tour Site Cultural Tour Website Natural Designing Natural Tours Designing Natural Tours Web Site Science Designing Scientific Tours Designing Sci-Fi Web Site Designing a Sports Tour Designing a Sports Tour Website Designing a Tours Tour Designing a Touring Web Site Exhibit Exhibit Tour Travel Designing Tours Tour The Last Moment Toure The Last Moment Designing the Last Minute Tours Internal Tours Designing Local Tours Designing a Web Site Tour </em > Foreign Tours Designing a Tours Site Designing a Website for Tours Coastal Work < em> Designing the Coast Guided Tour Urban Designing Urban Tours Urban Touring Sights < Em> Sightseeing Design Sightseeing Web Site Mountaineering Sailing Designing Sailing Tours < Em> Website Designing Sailing Tours Aviation Designing Tours Cruising Cruising ships Creating cruise ship cruises Creating Cruise Cruises Inbound Flights Designing Inbound Flights Foreign Flights Designing a Foreign Airmail Web site Last Minute Flights Web Design Last Minute Deals cheap Website Design Cheap Flights Online Shopping Online Sales Online Selling Website Design Online Shopping Online Store Online Store Design Online Tickets Design an Online Ticket Internet Designing a Web Store Internet Tickets Designing an Internet Ticket
Finance & Administration
Soopak Ariasun ( IT )
Sookam Ariasun ( Medical and Veterinary )
Aerospace ( Pad Ariasun )
Manufacture and production ( Rad Ariasun )
Airline and Tourism ( Man Ariasun )
International Commerce ( Mad Ariasun )
Research Center Ariasun ( R&D&C )
Cultural,Satellite and Digital
AriaSun International Group